Refine Your Results

Content Curators

Grades

Subjects

Resource Types

Standards

Now... gain access to over 2 Million curated educational videos and 500,000 educator reviews to free & open educational resources

Get a 10 Day Free Trial

872 reviewed resources for disability awareness

Videos (Over 2 Million Educational Videos Available)
Defining Gravity Video
3:11
Defining Gravity
Ancient Egypt | What Everyday Life Was Actually Like Video
9:28
Ancient Egypt | What Everyday Life Was...
Who was Frederick Douglass? Video
3:07
Who was Frederick Douglass?
Other Resource Types (872)
Lesson Planet

The Museum of Disability Resources: Reading Comprehension

For Teachers K - 3rd Standards
Everyone is different, and that makes everyone special. Combine empathy and reading skills with a series of reading comprehension activities from the Museum of Disability. The stories and questions encourage your class to see the world...
1 In 1 Collection
Lesson Planet

Disability Awareness Activity Packet

For Teachers Pre-K - Higher Ed
When you have an inclusive classroom it is important to help your general education students understand their peers with disabilities. This packet provides information and activities to assist elementary-aged children in building a...
1 In 1 Collection
Lesson Planet

Promoting Disability Awareness and Acceptance in Childhood

For Teachers K - 12th
Create a safe and respectful school environment with the help of this special education teaching guide. Offering dozens of instructional ideas and activities for raising awareness and acceptance of children with disabilities, this is a...
Lesson Planet

Learning Disabilities 101

For Teachers 1st - 5th
A quick overview of defining learning disabilities, where they stem from, and how they affect learning.
Lesson Planet

Disability Awareness Activity Packet

For Teachers Pre-K - 5th Standards
Bring awareness to disabilities with a packet consisting of a variety of activities designed to inform scholars about disabilities—autism, hearing impairments, physical disabilities, and more! Learners test their communication skills,...
Lesson Planet

Increasing Disability Awareness and Sensitivity

For Teachers 5th - 9th Standards
Designed to promote disability awareness and sensitivity, the five lessons and activities in this packet provide class members with information about disabilities, and with models of behaviors and language that help to break down...
Lesson Planet

Raise Awareness for National Learning Disabilities Month

For Teachers 5th - 7th
Raise awareness of learning disabilities through reading, writing, research, and collaboration.
Lesson Planet

Eugenics Worksheet

For Teachers Higher Ed
Students become familiar with the vocabulary associated with treatment of disabilities. In this Eugenics lesson plan, students complete a worksheet on Eugenics and discuss the treatment of people with disabilities in the past and present.
Lesson Planet

Bill of Rights -- Americans with Disabilities Act

For Teachers 6th - 8th
Middle schoolers focus on the First and Ninth Amendments of the Bill of Rights. Before visiting a museum, they examine the Americans with Disabilities Act. During the visit, they work together with a museum member to watch a video and...
Lesson Planet

Disability Awareness Activities

For Teachers 5th - 8th Standards
Through a series of hands-on activities, class members gain awareness about such disabilities as hearing impairment and blindness, as well as the need for accessibility and inclusion when faced with these conditions.
Lesson Planet

Trading Cards

For Teachers 3rd - 8th
Students create trading cards based on historical individuals that helped people with disabilities. In this disabilities lesson plan, students put the name, picture, description, and graphic on the card.
Lesson Planet

"Cures" Chart

For Teachers 7th - 12th
Learners chart the "cures" for people with disabilities. In this disabilities lesson, students compare and contrast the care and treatment of people with disabilities in the past and present. Learners write accurate summaries presented...
Lesson Planet

Cures: Barometer

For Teachers 5th - 12th
Students discuss and fill out a worksheet about the controversial cures of people with disabilities in the past. In this disabilities lesson plan, students write about the issues and justification for if they agree or disagree with these...
Lesson Planet

A Picture Book of Helen Keller

For Teachers 1st - 6th
Students advocate for people with disabilities. In this Helen Keller lesson, students listen to the story A Picture Book of Helen Keller by David A Adler. Students discuss how Helen Keller learned to communicate and became an advocate...
Lesson Planet

The Story of Taylor and His Wheelchair

For Teachers K - 4th
Students develop disability awareness. For this character building and diversity lesson, students listen to the book The Story of Taylor and his Wheelchair by James Riggio Heelan, then describe things that were difficult for Taylor to...
Lesson Planet

Recruiting Help to Attain Personal Goals

For Teachers 11th - Higher Ed
At one time or another, people with physical disabilities may require the assistance of others in the community. Here, they engage in one-on-one role-playing sessions to practice recruiting assistance in the community. They practice...
Lesson Planet

Disability Awareness Activity

For Teachers 3rd - 12th Standards
Class members gain awareness of the challenges people with disabilities face, such as those with vision impairments, autism, or speech and language disabilities, as they progress through a series of engaging and informative learning...
Lesson Planet

Multiplication Using the Vaughn Cube

For Teachers 3rd
Learning basic math skills is a must, but it may not be that easy for pupils with learning disabilities. This multiplication lesson uses the Vaughn Cube to help 3rd graders solve single-digit multiplication problems through pictorial...
Lesson Planet

Discovering Disabilities

For Teachers 3rd
Third graders participate in activities to make them aware of the disabilities around them. In a role-play activity, they play the role of a person with blindness, deafness, down syndrome or impaired mobility. They reflect in their...
Lesson Planet

Boy Scout Merit Badge: Disabilities Awareness

For Students 8th
In this boy scout merit badge:  disabilities awareness instructional activity, 8th graders research the topic using the websites listed, answer 7 detailed questions about access, agencies, disabled people, careers, advocacy then perform...
1 In 1 Collection
Lesson Planet

The Rights of Persons with Disabilities in the United States

For Teachers 6th - 12th Standards
Would I be able to access all areas of the school if I used a wheelchair? Or if I could not see? After brainstorming a list of typical life activities, class members assume the role of a person with a specific disability and consider...
Lesson Planet

Disabilities Day

For Students 5th - 10th
In this Disabilities Day activity, students complete activities such as read the passage, match the phrases, fill in the blanks, choose the correct word, multiple choice fill in, correct the spelling, put text in correct order,...
1 In 1 Collection
Lesson Planet

Zoom!

For Teachers Pre-K - 3rd Standards
Turn your class' focus on how wheelchairs assist individuals with disabilities to become more independent with this disabilities lesson plan. Scholars listen to a read aloud of the book, Zoom! by Robert Munsch, answer questions about key...
Lesson Planet

Fighting Prejudice and Discrimination against People with Learning Disabilities

For Teachers 3rd - 12th
Young scholars work to understand learning disabilities and discrimination. In this teaching tolerance lesson, students examine what learning disabilities are and how people are discriminated against.  There are different activities for...
Lesson Planet

Civil Rights and Americans with Disabilities

For Teachers 3rd - 6th
Students apply the principles of American democracy to people with disabilities. They analyze how individuals and groups in American society have struggled to achieve the liberties and equality promised in the principles of American...
Lesson Planet

Speaking and Writing about People with Disabilities

For Teachers 9th
Ninth graders explore the differences in language for referring to people:  disabled, handicapped or challenged.  In this people with disabilities lesson, 9th graders define the words and discuss common usage.  Students complete a...
Lesson Planet

Erikson and Disabilities

For Teachers 9th - 12th
Learners are introduced to a variety of educational theories related to disabilities. After watching a PowerPoint presentation, review the various types of disabilities and how the theories relate to Erikson's ideas. To end the lesson,...
Lesson Planet

Language for Speaking and Writing About Disabilities

For Students 3rd - Higher Ed
For this disabilities sentences worksheet, students correct the sentences using people first language. Students correct 12 sentences about disabilities.
Lesson Planet

Society - Timeline

For Teachers 3rd - 8th
Students look at a timeline of the development of different disabilities and discuss how different they all are. In this disabilities lesson plan, students then fill out a worksheet of examples of different kinds of disabilities.
Lesson Planet

Media Timeline

For Teachers 3rd - 6th
Students complete a media campaign worksheet about the awareness of people with disabilities. In this disabilities lesson plan, students write a campaign to reduce fear when making people aware of disabilities.
Lesson Planet

Sports: Adaptive Sports Brochure

For Teachers 5th - 8th
Students identify the items and events that make adaptive sports possible. In this adaptive sports lesson, students research how accomplishments are obtained for people with disabilities.  Students research different tournaments, events,...
Lesson Planet

Dear Santa, Please Come To The 19th Floor

For Teachers 3rd - 6th
Pupils read a story about children with disabilities and write a letter to Santa based on the letter written in the book. In this disabilities lesson plan, students realize how pupils with disabilities were treated in the past and today.
Lesson Planet

Diary

For Teachers 4th - 8th
Young scholars write a diary entry as if they were a student at one of the state schools that had different methods of instruction for students with disabilities. in this disabilities lesson plan, young scholars research these schools on...
Lesson Planet

Media Timeline

For Teachers 4th - 8th
Students study websites about the media and disabilities and identify places on a timeline where the media has influenced society with disabilities. In this disabilities lesson plan, students make a large timeline out of craft paper as a...
Lesson Planet

Timeline

For Teachers 4th - 12th
Students discover how people with disabilities have played a significant role in society throughout history. For this language arts and social studies lesson, students design a timeline that shows the inclusion of people with...
Lesson Planet

Advertisements

For Teachers 6th - Higher Ed
Students explore educational offerings for people with disabilities. In this social studies lesson, students research early schools for people with disabilities and discuss the advertisements that were used at the time. Students create...
Lesson Planet

Contributions

For Teachers 4th - 10th
Students research a website to find people who made significant contributions to people with disabilities. In this disabilities lesson plan, students then rank the most important contributions.
Lesson Planet

Legislation

For Teachers 4th - 10th
Students rank the legislation of disabilities since World War I and write their rationale for the ranking. In this legislation of disabilities lesson plan, students do this for 5 legislations that have been passed.
Lesson Planet

Medical Establishment: Hall of Fame

For Teachers 6th - 12th
Students discover what a medical establishment is and how it helps people with disabilities.  In this medical instructional activity, students research information about a specific medical establishment online.  Students then work in...
Lesson Planet

March of Dimes

For Teachers 7th - 12th
Students research March of Dimes. In this disabilities lesson plan, students use the March of Dimes website to answer questions on a worksheet. Students discuss similar programs that collect money to help support the prevention of other...
Lesson Planet

Don't Call Me Special, A First Look At Disability

For Teachers K - 2nd
Learners read the book Don't Call Me Special, A First Look At Disability about people with disabilities. In this disabilities lesson plan, students draw how they can help someone and write about it.
Lesson Planet

Programs

For Teachers 8th - 12th
Students discuss programs designed for people with disabilities. In this language arts and social studies lesson plan, students discuss programs started by the Kennedy family and create posters in order to share their findings.
Lesson Planet

World War II Laws

For Teachers 6th - Higher Ed
Students explore how laws passed during World War II have helped people with disabilities. In this social studies instructional activity, students research laws passed since World War II and complete a WWII Law chart.
Lesson Planet

The Right Dog For The Job

For Teachers 2nd - 5th
Young scholars read the book The Right Dog For The Job and create a skit about service dogs. In this service dogs lesson plan, students learn how service dogs help people with disabilities and draw pictures of them.
Lesson Planet

Integrating the Nintendo Wii in Adaptive Physical Education

For Teachers 3rd - 12th
Bring gaming into the classroom as part of a physical education lesson. Learners with disabilities participate in various physical activities using the Nintendo Wii. They use the video game system not only to play different sports, but...
Lesson Planet

Andy and His Yellow Frisbee and Ian's Walk, A Story About Autism

For Teachers 3rd - 8th
Students analyze two individuals with autism. In this language arts lesson, students read two stories about kids with autism and discuss how advocates have helped people with disabilities. Students compare and contrast the main...
Lesson Planet

Physical Disabilities/Chronic Health Impairments Instructional Support Planning Process

For Teachers K - 12th
Perfect for review at an IEP meeting, this template walks the user through assessing and assigning modifications for a learner's physical disability. Strengths and needs are determined across five domains: physical functioning,...
Lesson Planet

Eggbert- The Slightly Cracked Egg: Tolerance, Disabilities, Characater Education

For Teachers K - 1st
Students discuss the differences, flaws and strengths that we all have using "Eggbert, The Slightly Cracked Egg" by Tom Ross and Rex Barron as inspiration . They color 'slightly cracked' hard-boiled eggs.
Lesson Planet

Access for Everyone

For Teachers 4th - 6th
Students research to find out about people who live with disabilities to lead happy, productive, independent lives. They discuss what they have read and observed about accessibility and connect it ot their country's laws. They then...
Lesson Planet

Autism Awareness

For Teachers K - 2nd
Have your class inquire about learning disabilities by identifying their own capabilities. They discuss their interests and hobbies and identify that not everyone has the same skill set now or anytime in the future. They listen as the...
Lesson Planet

Adaptive Sports and Recreational Games

For Teachers 5th - 12th
It's truly amazing how people with physical disabilities are able to find ways to overcome their impairments. Their tremendous perseverance is evident in this handout that describes the ways different sports, ranging from bowling...
Lesson Planet

Eugenics Lesson Plan: Button or Bumper Sticker

For Teachers 3rd - 7th
Students investigate how fear can cause problems with policies associated with people with disabilities. In this people with disabilities lesson, students study the associated vocabulary, fill in a chart which contains policies that are...
Lesson Planet

Americans with Disabilities Act

For Teachers 9th - Higher Ed
Students identify the major points of the Americans with Disabilities Act. They discuss are the types of barriers that might need to be overcome in the first three Titles, the accommodations that might help overcome the barriers, and how...
Lesson Planet

HEALTH & SOCIAL SCIENCE

For Teachers 4th - 7th
Students create a three part poster entitled, "Learning Disabilities". The first two parts are two paragraph reports on any two of the learning disabilities featured in the discussion. The final part of the poster is a two paragraph essay.
Lesson Planet

Religion and Ethics: Living with Special Needs

For Teachers 3rd - 5th
Students explore human behavior by exploring mental and physical disabilities. In this learning disability lesson, students identify the different disabilities students have which prevent them from working at the same pace as the rest of...
Lesson Planet

Communities for All

For Teachers 3rd - 5th
Students explore potential community "barriers" that might prevent equal access for all people. In this disability awareness lesson, students identify potential barriers in their community that prevent people with disabilities from...
Lesson Planet

Diversity Among Us

For Teachers 2nd
Second graders examine diversity and disabilities that arise in the classroom environment by listening to a read aloud. They watch a slide show that demonstrates differences among students and how to communicate effectively in diverse...
Lesson Planet

Dealing with Differences

For Teachers 1st - 2nd
Students list at least ten things they have a hard time doing. After reading and discussing Be Good to Eddie Lee, Students, in cooperative groups, write at least six ways people can assist people with disabilities.
Lesson Planet

Diversity

For Teachers 5th - 6th
Learners access prior knowledge of the five senses and relate to students with disabilities. In this people with disabilities lesson, learners research and use a Venn diagram to compare and contrast famous people and their...
Lesson Planet

The Trumpet of the Swan

For Teachers 5th
Fifth graders identify how disabilities affect the lives of people. In this disability awareness lesson, 5th graders read an included newspaper article about persevering through a disability and write about a time they had to face a...
Lesson Planet

Exploitation, Day 2: Exploitation and Getting Help

For Teachers 9th - 12th
Exploitation is a real issue for the disabled community. Secondary Special Education students learn what exploitation is, their personal rights, and how to say no. They focus on finding a trusted adult to get help if they have been taken...
Lesson Planet

Wheelchair Obstacle Course

For Teachers 3rd - 5th
Students complete an obstacle course while in a wheelchair in order to increase disabilities awareness.
Lesson Planet

A Girl Named Helen Keller

For Teachers 1st - 3rd
Students explore human behavior by reading a biography about Helen Keller. In this learning disabilities lesson plan, students read the book A Girl Named Helen Keller and identify the diseases she was stricken with and the determination...
Lesson Planet

Double Self Portrait

For Teachers 8th - 12th
Students meet an artist who overcame learning and physical disabilities and became a successful artist. They use a digital camera to imitate the style of one artist; and explore the connection between the use of technology and art.
Lesson Planet

Ender's Game: Ender's Shadow Projects

For Teachers 9th - 12th
Most likely intended for a secondary remedial class. This lesson engages pupils in literary analysis through a creative project. They choose one project focused on taking the protagonist through a hero's journey. This link provides a...
Lesson Planet

Lesson Plans for Teaching Self-Determination

For Teachers 9th - 12th
How do we prepare kids, especially those with disabilities, for life after school, for the workplace, for independent living? This 96-page packet is loaded with self-assessment surveys, with skill builders, with information about rules,...
2:47
Lesson Planet

My Dad's Racing

For Teachers Pre-K - K
With a focus on Social Studies , this video shows a young girl helping her father, who is in a wheelchair, while he races at a track. This would be a great way to begin an exploration of the topic of Social Studies . It focuses on what...
Lesson Planet

Diversity in Media: Looking Critically at What We See

For Teachers 8th - Higher Ed
This learning experience fosters awareness of representations we see, and don't see, in the media. Learners list TV programs, games, and films they enjoy, identify characters' ethnic, religious, (dis)ability, and sexual orientation...
Lesson Planet

Wheel of Fortune for Students with Multiple Disabilities

For Teachers 6th - Higher Ed
Students play Wheel of Fortune. In this Wheel of Fortune lesson, students with disabilities play an online version of the game to earn rewards and small prizes. Students must solve math problems correctly in order to win. 
Lesson Planet

Increasing My Self-Awareness

For Teachers 9th - 12th Standards
After watching a PowerPoint about famous people with disabilities, class members begin a Self-Awareness research project about their own abilities and disabilities. Included in the project is information about people who have similar...
Lesson Planet

Understanding My Rights and Responsibilities

For Teachers 9th - 12th Standards
Three scripted lessons comprise a unit designed to inform special needs students about their rights and responsibilities in high school. In the first lesson class members examine the Individuals with Disabilities Act (IDEA), Child Find,...
Lesson Planet

Improving My Communication Skills

For Teachers 9th - 12th Standards
The two lessons in the fifth unit in this series are designed to help students with disabilities improve their communication skills. The first lesson has class members practice strategies and skills for appropriate communication. They...
Lesson Planet

Using Poetry in Teaching Reading to Special Education Students

For Teachers 6th - 9th
A series of well-written activities, these lessons prompt middle schoolers reading below grade level (at a second, third, or fourth grade level) to use poetry to practice basic reading skills. They rhyme, build words, make inferences,...
Lesson Planet

Adapted Physical Education

For Teachers Pre-K - 12th
Looking for information about how to adapt physical education for learners with special needs? Check out this packet that provides information about general adaptations, as well as appropriate approaches and activities for children with...
Lesson Planet

Be Good To Eddie Lee; Stop Using Labels on People

For Teachers 3rd - 5th
Read and discuss the story Be Good to Eddie Lee as it relates to the  ways in which people use terms to describe people. Learners suggest ways to stop people from using labels and mean terms to describe other people. They then write...
Lesson Planet

English Grammar Help, How to Write Correct Sentences

For Teachers 6th - 12th
Here is a neat way to promote independence in your learners with dyslexia. Learners can access this resource for quick tips in writing complete, grammatically correct sentences. It's like a cheat sheet kids can use on their own. To...
Lesson Planet

Vocabulary/Reading Lesson for Students with Severe Intellectual Disabilities

For Teachers 4th - 6th Standards
Here is a great little reading and vocabulary development lesson created just for learners with special needs. The lesson is constructed with both core content and necessary adaptations in mind. The group will use PECS, pointing/gesture,...
1 In 1 Collection
Lesson Planet

Don't Call Me Special

For Teachers Pre-K - 3rd Standards
Introduce young learners to the idea of disabilities and making friends with children who are different than they are. Using Don't Call Me Special - A First Look at Disability by Pat Thomas, learners are guided through the new vocabulary...
Lesson Planet

Helen Keller: Author, Advocate, and Activist

For Teachers 3rd - 7th Standards
Have you ever had to work through a disability or shortcoming? Scholars analyze the life and impact of author, advocate, and activist Helen Keller. After researching photos, video clips, and primary sources, individuals form a written...
Lesson Planet

Kennedy Lesson Plan: Best Buddies

For Teachers 5th - 8th
Students discuss disabilities. In this "Best Buddies" lesson, students take a look at programs that help people with disabilities and discover what role those people play in those programs. They work in pairs to explore the "Best...
Lesson Planet

Including the Disabled Student

For Teachers 6th - 12th
Learners read and discuss the history of special education in public schools related to the Individuals with Disabilities Education Act. Students work in groups to design ways to modify classroom activities based on the needs of a...
Lesson Planet

Warm-Up Exercise with Hula Hoop

For Teachers 1st - 8th
To improve mobility, social skill development, and the concept of position, learners with physical disabilities work together to raise and lower a hula hoop over their heads. The activity is short and intended to be used as a warm-up.
Lesson Planet

Advocates for Disabilities

For Teachers 6th - 8th
 Students research people who have contributed to making life better for the disabled.  In this advocacy lesson students enter the names of advocates on cards and divide into groups. Students complete a worksheet based on the advocates...
Lesson Planet

Behavior Management Plan

For Teachers K - 12th
Redirect misbehavior and reinforce positive behavior with a management plan that focuses on specific goals, replacement behaviors, scholar feedback, monitoring methods, family communication, and future implementation of the plan.  
Lesson Planet

Teacher Observation Sheet

For Teachers K - 12th
Collect anecdotal data using a teacher observation worksheet that looks closely at scholars' behavior, their triggers, the behavior's frequency, duration, and setting. 
Lesson Planet

Dyspraxia Presentation

For Teachers Higher Ed
Not really a resource for use in the classroom - this file is a PowerPoint presentation which gives information about Dyspraxia. It is a very interesting presentation because it shares many signs to look for in a person who may be...
Lesson Planet

Read With Your Fingers

For Students 5th - 6th
In this social studies worksheet, students investigate the Braille alphabet as a means of reading for the blind. Students study the Braille alphabet chart and read the information. Students translate 7 words into Braille and write a...
Lesson Planet

Create A Ramp Design

For Teachers 9th - 12th Standards
Ramp up a design challenge. Class members design ramps to meet a client's requirements to comply with the American with Disabilities Act. The scholars create a scaled graph of their designs and determine the equations of the lines on...
Lesson Planet

Myths and Misconceptions

For Teachers 9th - Higher Ed
Students examine and discuss common myths and misconceptions about persons with disabilities and with a partner plan an outing for a community activity. They read and complete the handout "Developmental Disabilities: Truth or Myth?" and...
Lesson Planet

FIELD TRIP TO PACE

For Teachers K
Students see and interact with people who have different disabilities, view equipment that people with disabilities can use, and ask questions in order to help themselves explain more clearly what it is like to be disabled.
Lesson Planet

Sports for All

For Teachers 3rd
Third graders complete several sports activities with simulated disabilities. They reflect on the inherent difficulties and brainstorm modifications for each activity.
Lesson Planet

KIDS ON THE BLOCK PUPPET SHOW

For Teachers K
Students explore issues concerning physical disabilities in an entertaining format of a puppet show. They interact and participate when asked to during the show, discuss what they learned from the puppet show.
Lesson Planet

What If It Happened To Me? A Look At The Disabled in Society

For Teachers 9th - 12th
Students examine what it would be like to be disabled. They read literature with characters who have disabilities and discuss how society treats people with disabilities. They write an essay explaining why they are "normal."
Lesson Planet

Raising Awareness and Promoting Advocacy

For Teachers 9th - 12th
Young scholars complete a survey on how society views people with disabilities. Using the internet, they research the various advocacy organizations and discuss how they can raise awareness. To end the lesson, they work together to...
Lesson Planet

Jail House Rock

For Teachers K - 8th
Students with disabilities are provided with a dance experience. This could be done as an inclusion activity. They dance to Jail House Rock by Elvis Presley.
Lesson Planet

Seeing the World Through A Different Lens

For Teachers 6th - 8th
Students participate in activities in which they model different disabilities. They discuss their experiences as a class. They work together in groups to discuss how to improve an adaptive device.
Lesson Planet

8th Grade Special Needs P.E. Project

For Teachers 8th
Eighth graders without a disability are encouraged to gain a new perspective about what it is like to have a physical disability. They experience various examples (blindfolding, soundproof ear protection, wheelchair, etc.) to begin to...
5:33
Lesson Planet

How To: Talk To Your Doctor

For Students 3rd - 12th
Here is another great how-to video offered by Mary Allison Cook for those who require use of a wheelchair. Cook offers tricks she has learned over the years to create a positive doctor's visit. 
Lesson Planet

Pets and People Helping Each Other

For Teachers 1st - 4th
Students examine ways that service dogs assist disable people. After reading the book, "A Service Dog Goes to School," they write summaries and define vocabulary terms. Students write letters to a disabled guest speaker expressing what...
Lesson Planet

A Picture Book Of Louis Braille; What Is An Advocate

For Teachers 3rd - 6th
Read and discuss the book A Picture Book of Louis Braille as it relates to communication, Helen Keller, and advocating for disabled individuals. Learners identify what an advocate is and explain how  Helen Keller communicated. They...
Lesson Planet

TEACHING STUDENTS WITH DISABILITIES

For Teachers Higher Ed
Students are introduced to teaching strategies for meeting the needs of students with disabilities in general education settings. Teachers become familiar with the various modifications, interventions, accommodations and strategies that...
Lesson Planet

Disability

For Teachers 4th - 8th
Students explore disabilities. In this Red Cross lesson, students study the story of Graham Hicks whose disabilities do not hold him back.
Lesson Planet

Identifying Our Similarities, Despite Our Differences

For Teachers K - 2nd
Learners discuss similarities and differences among the members of their class. They read and discuss several books about children with disabilities and then draw and/or write about someone they can think of who has a disability and...
Lesson Planet

Health Education: An Integrated Approach; A Day Without Sight

For Teachers 4th
Fourth graders hypothesize about the difficulties they may encounter if they did not have their sense of sight, in order to establish a sense of empathy for the disabled. In this instructional activity on senses, 4th graders record all...
1 In 1 Collection
Lesson Planet

The Right Dog for the Job

For Teachers Pre-K - 3rd Standards
Here, dog lovers can enjoy an educational lesson about the ways puppies are trained to become service and guide dogs. Based on The Right Dog for the Job by Dorothy Hinshaw Patent, the lesson provides discussion questions for learners...
1 In 1 Collection
Lesson Planet

Taking Down Syndrome to School

For Teachers Pre-K - 3rd Standards
Teach your class about the ways they can befriend and understand people who are different from them with a reading comprehension lesson plan. As youngsters read Taking Down Syndrome to School by Jenna Glatzer, they answer a series of...
Lesson Planet

Locomotor and Object Control Stations

For Teachers 5th - 6th
Develop children's basic locomotor and object control skills with an invigorating Adaptive PE instructional activity. A series of four, timed stations engaged the class in playing a game of Twister, walking on a balance beam, throwing...
Lesson Planet

The ADA, the Supreme Court, and Self-Advocacy

For Teachers 10th - 12th
Students study the role the Supreme Court plays in laws and decisions that affect individuals with disabilities and examine the policies of the American with Disabilities Act. They draw parallels between policies enacted by the ADA and...
Lesson Planet

Technology: Biomedical Engineering

For Teachers 6th - 8th
Students participate in activities simulating various disabilities. After discussions, they work in teams to devise or improve on adaptive devices for people with disabilities. They include drawings of the tools they design and explain...
Lesson Planet

Evaluating the Accessibility of Polling Places

For Teachers 7th - 12th
Students design ways to accommodated voters with disabilities. For this creative problem solving lesson, students use the ADA checklist for polling places and universal design principles to evaluate a polling place. They draw plans...
Lesson Planet

Write Now

For Teachers 7th - 8th
In this social studies worksheet, students visit a given website to read about Tran Duyen Hai, someone who is changing the lives of Vietnamese children with disabilities. Students answer three questions about the reading.
Lesson Planet

Acceptance of Learning Disabilities

For Teachers K - 12th
Students explore methods to assist them in dealing with their personal learning disabilities. Students meet individually with the teacher to develop a learning plan. They identify the strengths and weaknesses. Strategies are discussed...
Lesson Planet

Stellaluna Lesson: Increase Oral Language Development and Story Comprehension

For Teachers 1st - 6th
To be used with the BRAIDY system, this lesson works to increase oral language and reading comprehension. Special needs pupils review parts of a story, sequence of events, and create a Venn diagram showing the differences between birds...
Lesson Planet

Special Education Poetry Idea

For Teachers 7th - 12th
Use this simple activity to introduce poetry to your junior high or high school special education class. Learners take turns writing lines that rhyme with a word you assigned. After all the sentences are written, they arrange them to...
Lesson Planet

SO…What’s the Challenge?

For Teachers 6th - 8th Standards
Whose responsibility is it to protect equal rights? Class members engage in a series of activities that create awareness of the prejudice and intolerance persons with disabilities face. They then create a message addressed to their...
Lesson Planet

Phonemic Awareness Guide

For Teachers Pre-K - 1st
Phonemic awareness, one of the five areas of reading instruction (phonemic awareness, phonics, fluency, vocabulary and text comprehension) is the focus of this packet designed for emergent readers, including those with significant...
Lesson Planet

Tactile quilts that tell a story

For Teachers 3rd - 10th
Learners with multiple disabilities need to engage in projects that push them to know their full potential. They need to be able to express themselves in a variety of ways, and this very thoughtful lesson plan does just that. They make a...
Lesson Planet

Activities to Support Teaching the Alphabet

For Teachers Pre-K - 1st
Whether or not your class includes kids with significant disabilities, teaching the alphabet to emergent readers and writers can be a challenge. Here's an activity packet designed for all learners.
Lesson Planet

Lesson 6: Mittens, Socks, Mittens, Socks, Mittens!

For Teachers K - 8th
Mittens and socks, two of my favorite clothing items!  Young learners with special needs, explore clothing appropriate for cold weather. They identify both socks and mittens, discuss weather appropriate clothing, and listen to the story,...
1 In 1 Collection
Lesson Planet

Making Choices

For Teachers K - 6th
Here is an excellent and well-developed lesson intended to promote choice-making skills for learners with visual impairment and intellectual disabilities. It fosters choice-making skills through a soft version of discrete trial training,...
Lesson Planet

Phonemic Awareness and Sounding Out Words

For Teachers Pre-K - 1st Standards
Although designed for children with learning disabilities, such as dyslexia, the multi-sensory tips and tricks included in this illustrated eight-page packet are designed to develop phonemic awareness and are appropriate for any classroom.
Lesson Planet

Understanding What Reading Is All About: Teaching Materials for Adult Basic Education Learners

For Teachers 10th - Higher Ed
Adult special education learners focus on literacy across 13 detailed lessons. They utilize real-life text interactions to learn about components of reading, word analysis, sight words, fluency, vocabulary, and spelling. There is also a...
Lesson Planet

"I am..." Communication Board

For Students K - 12th
Help scholars share how they are feeling with a communications board that offers 20 pictures such as thirsty, sick, cold, and more! 
Lesson Planet

"I Have a Question..." Communication Board

For Students K - 12th
Support nonverbal communication with a communications boards that features 20 pictures that answer questions such as How are you?, Why?, Who are you?, and more.
Lesson Planet

"I Need Help" Communication Board

For Students K - 12th
Help scholars communicate their needs with a communications board equipped with 20 pictures including the needs of clothes, school supplies, and more!    
Lesson Planet

Every Day Activity Picture Cards

For Students K - 12th Standards
Thirty-six picture cards showcase every day activities including sitting, going outside, singing, and more! 
Lesson Planet

Understanding and Supporting Our Peers with Cognitive Challenges

For Teachers 3rd - 6th
Students explore different federal laws promoting the education for the handicapped. In this literacy lesson, students brainstorm how they can help individual with Down syndrome. They read a fiction book related to the topic and discuss...
Lesson Planet

Youth Helping to Elevate Awareness

For Teachers 8th
Eighth graders read a book whose main character has a physical disability, and complete various related activities. They listen to a guest speaker, simulate experiences at school as a disabled individual through the use of wheelchairs,...
Lesson Planet

Wonder Wheels

For Teachers 2nd - 3rd
Students discover ways that they all are alkie as well as different from each other. They write down three ways that students who cannot walk might be able to move around. Students complete a graphic organizer to analyze the immediate...
Lesson Planet

Story Map Book Report

For Teachers 1st - 7th
This is an example of what a story map book report can look like using mind wing teaching concepts. Consider this idea as a way to provide special needs or those with learning disabilities a way to communicate what they know or learned...
Lesson Planet

Opening a Special Ed Class

For Teachers 1st - 12th
This is not just a lesson plan, it's a life saver! Here are 10 separate documents intended to assist a new Special Ed teacher. There are 4 different games, instructional tips, ways to handle documentation, behavioral modification...
1 In 1 Collection
Lesson Planet

Model Me Going Places 2

For Students K - 12th
Social stories are wonderful teaching tools specifically designed for learners with Asperger's, autism, PDD-NOS, non-verbal learning disabilities, or other developmental disabilities. They are used to model appropriate social behaviors...
Lesson Planet

Imagine Being Me

For Teachers 9th
The design of this two-day lesson eloquently exposes learners to the topic of social justice for people with disabilities. The plan is built off the reading of Are You Alone on Purpose? by Nancy Werlin. The activity introduces readers to...
Lesson Planet

The Peer Advocacy Guide

For Teachers 7th - 12th Standards
Teasing, mocking, and disrespect can be the hallmarks in the life of those with disabilities. Disrupt the cycle of abuse with a toolkit designed to turn peers into advocates for all those who are bullied. Everything needed to create a...
Lesson Planet

Math: Designing a Playground

For Teachers 6th
Sixth graders design and draw a model playground to scale. They configure the layout to include a sandbox, slide, baseball field and other equipment. Their design includes adaptations for students with disabilities. Their designs are...
Lesson Planet

Franklin D. Roosevelt

For Students 4th - 6th
Challenge your students with this comprehension packet relating to a book about Franklin D. Roosevelt. Learners can organize their thoughts with a cause and effect chart. They can also answer thought-provoking questions about important...
Lesson Planet

Can You Feel the Thunder?

For Teachers 6th - 8th Standards
Discuss disability awareness and acceptance of people who are different with this resource. After reading the story, Can You Feel the Thunder? by Lynn E. McElfresh, learners talk about metaphors, answer cause and effect questions, and...
Lesson Planet

Reproduction, Day 2: Pregnancy

For Teachers 9th - 12th
Nearly all students have seen pregnant women and may have questions about human development. Intended for secondary students with mild to moderate mental disabilities, this lesson defines the process of pregnancy  in a developmentally...
Lesson Planet

Integrated Skills - Laundry

For Teachers 6th - 12th
I hate doing laundry, even if it is an independent living skill that requires me to count money, follow a sequence, and sort clothing by color. Learners with multiple disabilities discuss what laundry is, why they need to do it, and how...
Lesson Planet

The Role of Technology in Education

For Teachers 6th Standards
Should technology be restricted or embraced in educational settings? Sixth graders work to answer this question by exploring the issue through mixed mediums and then crafting a written argument. Full of evidence-based strategies and...
Lesson Planet

Walking in Their Shoes

For Teachers 5th - 12th
Students explore the challenges of those who have "learning disabilities." They develop a storyboard and create a video which depicts learning disabled students coping with life. Special effects are added to the video scenes, as well as...
Lesson Planet

Connecting Letters and Memory

For Teachers 2nd - 5th
Elementary students with mild to moderate mental disabilities use a variety of tools to connect letter sounds to images. They use flash cards, posters, and writing while saying to connect letter image to phonemic equivalent. Then, they...
Lesson Planet

SO…What’s the Challenge?

For Teachers 9th - 12th Standards
What does it feel like to be the victim of intolerance? Class members engage in activities, watch a video, and reflect on their own experiences with intolerance or discrimination before creating a project designed to combat intolerance...
Lesson Planet

What Objects Sink and What Objects Float Science Lesson Plan

For Teachers 1st - 2nd
Get your special ed students exploring science. They conduct an experiment to determine why certain objects sink and why certain objects float. This instructional activity is intended for 1st/2nd graders with sever to profound cognitive...
Lesson Planet

Story Editors

For Teachers 1st - 2nd
Learners with special needs and learning disabilities explore writing by becoming story editors. The class reads a story together after hearing it once through first. Then, they each examine the pictures from the story and work on...
Lesson Planet

Recycling: Responsible Behaviors

For Teachers 4th
Take the time to teach learners with moderate disabilities how to identify recyclable materials. They learn how to recycle as a mode of social responsibility and community involvement. They practice identifying and sorting recyclable...
Lesson Planet

The Rights to Education

For Teachers 9th - 12th Standards
Do all kids in the US have access to a quality education? What barriers do English language learners face? What about kids from tough neighborhoods? What about kids with disabilities, gay kids, pregnant kids? Class members listen to the...
Lesson Planet

Disability Research

For Students 4th - 12th Standards
Learners engage in a disability awareness assignment where they research and identify a particular disability, and answer such questions as how the disability might affect the way one learns or what services are available for support.
1 In 1 Collection
Lesson Planet

Healthy Bodies for Girls

For Teachers 4th - 12th
Make human growth development education an inclusive experience with a guide to puberty designed to  support girls with disabilities. Topics include exercise, hygiene, menstruation, and more!
1 In 1 Collection
Lesson Planet

Healthy Bodies for Boys

For Teachers 4th - 12th
Create an inclusive space for scholars to gain milestone information about their growing bodies with a unit designed to meet the needs of learners with disabilities. Topics include the onset of puberty, hormones, hygiene, and more!   
Lesson Planet

Evaluating the Accessibility of Polling Places

For Teachers 8th
Eighth graders apply the six steps in technology problem solving as they use the Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA) Checklist for Polling Places and the seven Universal Design Principles to evaluate and make recommendations for...
Lesson Planet

Five "E" Lesson-Stereotypes

For Teachers 9th - 11th
Students discuss the nature of stereotyping and prejudicial behavior and their feelings regarding people with visible disabilities. They view part of documentary Graduating Peter then work in groups to chart people's reactions and...
Lesson Planet

AccessABILITY

For Teachers 2nd - 4th
Students examine certain disabilities represented by children with disabling conditions in the class.  In this generic differences and disabilities lesson, students design an art project depicting one word or phrase regarding...
Lesson Planet

If I Were....I Could Still...

For Teachers K
Students determine if people with certain disabilities are capable of doing different activities, and try to think of ways to adapt activities so that everyone could participate.
Lesson Planet

Project Thorne Comm

For Teachers 6th - 8th
Young scholars participate in a class that is designed for those who have physical and mental disabilities. They take part in class activities and field trips planned around the development of skills for activities of daily living. The...
Lesson Planet

A Woman's Crusade: Dorothea Dix

For Teachers 9th - 12th
Students examine the life and reform efforts of Dorothea Dix on behalf of people with disabilities. They also examine the role of women in the 1840s and 1850s. They discover different sources of examples of citizen's rights.
Lesson Planet

A Timeline of Caring

For Teachers 6th - 8th
Young scholars examine the various disabilities that are addressed by federal legislation and how they work within the school setting. In small groups they conduct Internet research on a specific piece of federal legislation, then create...
Lesson Planet

Disability Awareness Lesson

For Teachers 3rd - 5th
Learners gain an understanding of how activities should be modified for the physically challenged.
Lesson Planet

Able Am I

For Teachers 6th - 12th
Students read the article "Disabled Skier Designs His Way to Be a Daredevil." They discuss using the questions on the lesson plan. Students create large sized baseball cards featuring competitive, disabled athletes.
Lesson Planet

DHH Self Advocacy

For Teachers 7th - 9th
Students explore personal hearing loss.  In this autobiography and technology lesson, students with a hearing loss create and present a Power Point presentation about their own type of hearing loss, how it effects them in the classroom,...
Lesson Planet

Mini Goalball Battleship

For Teachers 1st - 6th
Here is a game that can be played by both sighted and unsighted children. Floor mats, blindfolds, and bowling pins are used to create a real-life battleship game where each team attempts to knock down the other team's pins. 
Lesson Planet

Vocabulary Review Worksheet 13 Expressing Ability

For Students 5th - 6th
In this words and meanings worksheet, students read ten sentences and complete them with words from a word bank. The sentences refer to abilities and disabilities and Helen Keller.
Lesson Planet

The Meaning of Disability

For Teachers 6th - 12th
Pupils discover the different types of disabilities. They examine the stereotypes and stigmas associated with them and hear from a person who lived in an institution.
Lesson Planet

Train at School

For Teachers K - 12th Standards
Here is a fantastic compilation of adaptive physical education lesson plans that cover the major concepts of physical fitness, including: aerobic endurance, balance, coordination, flexibility, power, speed and agility, and strength.   
Lesson Planet

Adaptive Device Design

For Teachers 3rd - 12th Standards
After reading about how engineering has made adaptive devices possible for people with disabilities, pupils work in groups to discuss different devices to determine whether or not they are adaptive. They also disassemble a pair of...
Lesson Planet

Relationships, Day 4: Friendships & Dating

For Teachers 9th - 12th
It is so important to help special needs individuals know the difference between dating and friendship. They define friendship, differentiate between friends and strangers, role-play, practice greetings, then talk about dating. This...
Lesson Planet

Communication, Day 2: Assertiveness

For Teachers 9th - 12th
Having social skills and being able to assert yourself in a positive way is so important. Students with mild to moderate disabilities engage in a series of activities to practice assertive communication and social skills. Perfect for a...
Lesson Planet

Lesson 23: Reproduction - Day 5: Birth Control

For Teachers 9th - 12th
Learners with mild to moderate disabilities discuss human reproduction and the importance of preventing pregnancy. They review reproductive anatomy, sexual decision making, and what birth control is. The lesson concludes with a...
Lesson Planet

Daily Helper Schedule: Template

For Students K - 6th
I wish I had thought of this! This schedule provides a place to put an image of a different person for each day of the week and frame for the person the child will be working with that day. Initially intended to assist an Autistic pupil...
Lesson Planet

Basic Pedestrian Safety Signs and Procedures

For Teachers K - 8th
Including a full procedure and a safety game, this lesson is sure to be a winner in your special ed class. They practice identifying basic safety signs, looking both ways, and crossing at the signal. They then play a pedestrian safety...
Lesson Planet

Using a Debit Card to Make Purchases

For Teachers 9th - Higher Ed
After you make a photo album of image depicting the process of using a debit card, kids in your class can start practicing. They learn how to use a debit card in various shopping and community settings to gain independent shopping...
1 In 1 Collection
Lesson Planet

Using Counting-on Strategy for Purchasing

For Teachers 9th - Higher Ed
Intended for learners with autism and developmental disabilities, this lesson uses the strategy of counting-on to enhance independent shopping skills. Learners will practice counting on to the next dollar value in order to purchase items...
Lesson Planet

Home Living / Daily Living: Safety Terms

For Teachers 3rd - 12th
Being able to recognize safety signs in your environment is a great start to staying safe. Kids with severe to moderate disabilities work to recognize and identify safety terms and signs. They use flashcards and decreasing prompts to...
Lesson Planet

Home Living / Daily Living Lesson Plan—Mastery Healthy Food

For Teachers 5th - 12th
Everyone needs to know how to eat well to stay healthy. Learners with mild disabilities log what they eat, discuss food choices, and review healthy foods. The lesson plan could be used to foster living skills in high-functioning...
Lesson Planet

Telephone Skills

For Teachers K - 12th
What kid doesn't love talking on the phone? Learners with visual and intellectual disabilities get comfortable using several types of telephones. They begin by examining the phone, dialing, answering the phone, and then they work into...
Lesson Planet

Taking Turns

For Teachers K - 6th
For small children or learners with disabilities, learning to wait patiently and taking turns is very important. In pairs, two children with visual impairments take turns asking for, waiting for, and playing with a musical toy. Each turn...
Lesson Planet

Learning to Express Myself

For Teachers K - 6th
Expressing one's wants and needs is vital for learners of any age or ability level. Young children with visual impairments and intellectual disabilities practice asking for preferred items, foods, or activities in a structured manner....
Lesson Planet

Let's Pretend

For Teachers Pre-K - 6th
Playing pretend with real objects or concepts is a wonderful way for learners to make object-to-action connections, as well as practice daily living skills. Learners with visual and intellectual disabilities use a wide variety of real...
Lesson Planet

Conversation Skills

For Teachers 1st - 12th
It is so important for learners with multiple disabilities to learn how to communicate for both social and functional reasons. Each child will choose a topic from the list and generate five questions related to that topic. They'll split...
Lesson Planet

Personal Information

For Teachers K - 12th
"Hi, how are you? My name is___." Seems simple enough but it's not always that easy to recall and relate factual information about yourself. Learners with multiple disabilities practice memorizing and relaying personal information about...
Lesson Planet

Counting Cups

For Teachers K - 6th
Teach one-to-one correspondence, fine motor, and counting skills to your learners with visual disabilities. Included are a set of activity suggestions, which are useful when teaching a variety of different early math skills. Braille,...
Lesson Planet

Handprint Art

For Teachers K - 6th
Stimulate the senses with a handprint art project! Flake laundry detergent, water, and food coloring are mixed together to create a substance that has a pleasant smell and will dry hard and dimensional. Children with visual disabilities...
Lesson Planet

Fast or Slow?

For Teachers K - 6th
Vestibular stimulation is an action or activity relating to balance and motion. To find out what kind of vestibular stimulation your learners with multiple disabilities enjoy best, follow these simple suggestions. You engage the child in...
Lesson Planet

Down Syndrome: Lesson Plan

For Teachers K
You don't usually find lessons written just for learners with Down syndrome, so this is a true jewel. Kindergartners will explore farm animal sounds and identification as they sing the song, "Down on Grandpa's Farm." They sing the song,...
1 In 1 Collection
Lesson Planet

Rainbow Sentences

For Students 1st - 8th
Learners who struggle with grammar, foundational reading skills, and sentence composition can learn how to write proper sentences using an app that relies on research-based practice. It uses a color-coded formula that had been proven to...
1 In 1 Collection 11:33
Lesson Planet

Learning and Memory

For Teachers 6th - 12th Standards
Why is it that you can remember your childhood best friend's phone number, but not what you had for dinner last night? It is all in how memories are stored, in either short term memory or long term memory. In part five of six lessons...
Lesson Planet

Student Store

For Teachers 6th - 12th
Vocational training activities are extremely important for learners with intellectual or physical disabilities. Here is a great idea that will help your class become skilled at money handling, basic economic concepts, interpersonal...
Lesson Planet

Following Directions

For Teachers 1st - 6th
Turn the act of following directions into a fun and engaging game! Especially designed for students with cognitive or intellectual disabilities, this instructional activity uses a game format as a natural reinforcer. Write a set of...
Lesson Planet

Phonics Help: The Phonic Alphabetic Code Chart

For Teachers K - 12th
Phonics is a fundamental key to reading success. To help your learners with dyslexia or learning disabilities, try using the phonic alphabetic code chart. The chart and full instructions on how it can be used in the classroom are...
1 In 1 Collection
Lesson Planet

Sample Syllabus Template

For Teachers 9th - Higher Ed
All the information required for a course syllabus or green sheet may be added to this editable template. There's a spot for everything from required textbooks and materials to assignments, grading procedures, and course policies. There...
2:34
Lesson Planet

Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr.

For Students 6th - 12th Standards
Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr. not only paved the way for African American citizens' civil rights, he created an example for women's groups, Hispanic groups, and groups with disabilities to fight for their rights as well. Learn more with a...
Lesson Planet

Learning About Special Education

For Teachers 9th - 12th Standards
The lessons in the second unit in a three-unit series provide students with the historical background of disability education. After reading about events that impacted attitudes towards disabilities and how learners are identified for...
Lesson Planet

SPORTS Lesson Plan: Trading Cards

For Teachers 3rd - 8th
After visiting websites about the Special Olympics, your class creates trading cards about people with disabilities and the adaptations that have been made for them in sports. 
Lesson Planet

Parking Pass

For Teachers 4th - 6th
Students look at the rights and laws created to assist individuals with physical disabilities.  In this lesson on fair treatment for all, students discuss symbols that related to people with disabilities. They create a new parking pass...
Lesson Planet

Teaching Others About Being Deaf

For Teachers 9th - 12th
Students read two articles about how college students taught others about being blind or deaf. In their school, they interview students with a physical challenge and use the internet to research how to write about those with...
Lesson Planet

Lesson Plan: Can You Hear a Rainbow

For Teachers 4th - 6th
Students explore disabilities. In this deaf awareness lesson, students listen to the story Can you Hear a Rainbow, by Jamie Riggio Heelan and discuss things they have in common with the deaf character in the story. They work together in...
Lesson Planet

Discriminating Issues

For Teachers 6th - 12th
Students examine how U.S. Law Defines Discrimination In this instructional activity. They research the issues surrounding a variety of types of discrimination, and then write editorials analyzing legal and social positions on...
Lesson Planet

Physical Differences

For Teachers K
Students role play what it would be like to have a physical disability. In this lesson on acceptance, students listen to the book A Rainbow of Friends by P.K. Hallinan. As a class, the students discuss similarities and differences in...
Lesson Planet

The Trumpet of the Swan

For Teachers 4th
Fourth graders explore the human body by analyzing fictional characters. In this physical disability lesson, 4th graders define a list of physical vocabulary terms used in the story The Trumpet of the Swan. Students read the story with...
Lesson Planet

Exploring Disability

For Teachers 6th - 12th
Students explore through drama how disabled people may be treated by society.