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9:57
Lesson Planet

Gibbs Free Energy Example

For Students 7th - 10th
Sal continues his discussion of spontaneous reactions by setting up a reaction between two substances, and using the Gibbs Free Energy method to determine its spontaneity. This video is extremely heavy on the math, and it would be useful...
15:24
Lesson Planet

PV-diagrams and Expansion Work

For Students 7th - 10th
In this chemistry video, Sal teaches why work from expansion in an energy transfer takes up the space underneath the curved line of a PV Diagram. Pressure is on the left axis, and volume goes under the horizontal axis of the diagram. Sal...
9:22
Lesson Planet

Heterogenous Equilibrium

For Students 7th - 10th
Sal explains what happens when compounds that are in different states, (solid, liquid, gas), are in a chemical reaction with each other. Through the use of diagrams, Sal demonstrates how compounds of different states attempt to achieve...
14:04
Lesson Planet

Efficiency of a Carnot Engine

For Students 7th - 10th
In the world of chemistry, efficiency is defined as: the work a system does, divided by the energy given to that system to complete the work. Sal illustrates this important chemistry concept by drawing a PV graph that shows a Carnot...
8:56
Lesson Planet

More on Entropy

For Students 7th - 10th
Entropy is the focus of this chemistry video. More specifically, Sal drives the point home that entropy is a macro state variable. This means that a change in the universe's entropy must always be positive, because when heat is added to...
15:39
Lesson Planet

Other Periodic Table Trends

For Students 7th - 10th
Ionization energy is the focus of this science video. Specifically, it covers 2nd Ionization Energy of the elements. Electronegativity is a key concept when trying to understand 2nd Ionization energy. Sal also discusses the metallic...
7:38
Lesson Planet

Change of State Example

For Students 7th - 10th
A problem from a chemistry textbook is posed on the screen. In this problem, ethanol is used to illustrate how much energy, in joules, is required to change a substance from a liquid to a gas. The boiling point of ethanol is given, and...
13:35
Lesson Planet

Stoichiometry Example Problem 1

For Students 7th - 10th
The reaction of Phosphorus and Chlorine is the focus of this video on Stoichiometry. Sal sets up a reaction between the two substances, and uses the process of Stoichiometry in order to calculate how many grams of Phosphorus Trichloride...
3:48
Lesson Planet

Spectrophotometry Example

For Students 7th - 10th
To further illustrate the concept of spectrophotometry, Sal utilizes a problem taken from a chemistry textbook, and solves it. The concentration of a solute in a solution must be determined based upon data which was collected for the...
17:39
Lesson Planet

Introduction to Oxidation States

For Students 7th - 10th
Oxidation states in elements is the focus of this chemistry video. Sal illustrates how when an element loses electrons, it is moving toward a state of oxidation, and when an element is gaining electrons, it is moving toward a state of...
19:03
Lesson Planet

Work Done by Isothermic Process

For Students 7th - 10th
Since the temperature of a system is so crucial in its energy transformation, Sal goes into two processes which greatly affect temperature in a system: The Isothermic Process and The Adiabatic Process. He sets up an example, and...
14:37
Lesson Planet

Quasistatic and Reversible Processes

For Students 7th - 10th
The theories behind Quasistatic and Reversible Processes are offered in this chemistry video. Sal sets up a hypothetical situation in which gases are escaping from a piston in a car's engine. He uses this scenario to illustrate exactly...
6:49
Lesson Planet

Molecular and Empirical Formulas

For Students 7th - 10th
An introduction to molecular and empirical formulas awaits your students. Sal uses the elements benzene, water, and sulfur to illustrate the ways to come up with a molecular and an empirical formula. Additionally, Sal shows students how...
14:33
Lesson Planet

pKa and pKb Relationship

For Students 7th - 10th
Sal illustrates the all-important relationships between pKa and pKb in this chemistry video. This relationship is what determines whether an acid is considered to be "weak," or "strong." The mathematics behind figuring out these...
15:38
Lesson Planet

Thermodynamic Entropy Definition Clarification

For Students 7th - 10th
In the previous video, Sal introduced students to entropy and the 2nd Law of Thermodynamics. An example he used had a couple of points that were factual, but not clear to many students. In this video, he goes over those points again in...
11:02
Lesson Planet

Titration Roundup

For Students 7th - 10th
Titration curves are the focus of this chemistry video. Students see that if a weak base is titrated with a strong acid, then the pH equals the pKb at the half-equivalence point. The base will have an equilibrium, but the acid will not...
16:02
Lesson Planet

Vapor Pressue

For Students 7th - 10th
A problem from a chemistry textbook is posed on the screen. Sal solves the problem which attempts to calculate vapor pressure using the Ideal Gas Law. The rate of evaporation of water given a certain volume, temperature, and pressure is...
3:04
Lesson Planet

Mini-Video on Ion Size

For Students 7th - 10th
Sal discusses what happens to elements when they become ionized. He demonstrates that when neutral atoms become ionized, it can significantly change their relative atomic sizes. He uses the Periodic Table of the Elements to illustrate...
12:43
Lesson Planet

Work from Expansion

For Students 7th - 10th
Sal's series on the Law of Thermodynamics continues with this video on how heat and work are added to, or taken away from, a system. As a result of the heat and work energy, the system that is being worked on will transform into another...
4:15
Lesson Planet

Carbon 14 Dating 2

For Students 7th - 10th
In the previous video, Sal estimated the half-life of a bone to be 5,730 years. Many people had questions about how he came up with that number of years. In this lecture, he explains his rationale for making that estimation to clear up...
8:29
Lesson Planet

Redox Reactions

For Students 7th - 10th
In previous videos, Sal talks about oxidation vs. reduction when acids and bases are reacting together. In this presentation, he goes into the "nitty-gritty" of exactly how and why electrons "choose" to leave one compound and "join" with...
8:45
Lesson Planet

States of Matter Follow-Up

For Students 7th - 10th
Sal continues his explanation of the states of matter by focusing on hydrogen bonds. This time, he uses plasma as the substance being studied, and explains how the hydrogen bonds change as the substance goes from solid, to liquid, to gas.
17:28
Lesson Planet

More on Oxidation States

For Students 7th - 10th
In the previous video, Sal presented how elements move toward a state of oxidation (by losing electrons), and a state of reduction (by gaining electrons). This lecture takes that concept a bit further, and he provides more examples.
7:50
Lesson Planet

Acid Base Introduction

For Students 7th - 10th
The Periodic Table of Elements is filled with elements that are considered to be acids or bases. This video explains to students how that determination is made, and why the elements are placed where they are on the periodic table.